How Does soap clean?
To clean your skin or your fabric, something must make the surface moist or wet and attract the dirt away from you or the surface; soap in its form does both its wets you at the same time gets rid of dirt and bacteria. Water molecules are closely bonded and resist being broken apart, soap acts as a surfactant, or a surface active agent, which basically means it helps the water soak in rather than form tight droplets.
The soap molecules itself have heads which attract to water, and tails which repel the water. When mixed with water, these soap molecules push their hydrophobic tails up through the surface of the water, to get as far away as possible. All of these tails poking through the top layer break up the surface tension of the water and cause it to spread out and wet more thoroughly through.
The soap removes dirt in two parts. First part is it attaches itself to the dirt, and then it suspends the dirt in the lather until the rinse takes them both away. More specifically, a soap molecule is a chain of atoms, including carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged with a very distinctive head and tail. The head is attracted to water and the tail is attracted to the dirt.
The soap molecule cleans by embedding its tail into the dirt or dirty surface and then dislodges it off the surface as its head pulls towards the water the soap then holds the dirt until it’s carried away from the surface.